Well, yes, they sure can. You can apply filter after filter to your RAW or even JPG files and end up with an image that can look like it was taken on large format glass plates, crisp 1950s black and white, or off tinited/contrasty 1970s film, or more recent professional films like the Velvia/Provia from Fuji, KodaChrome from Kodak or even Ilford (my favourite).
I’m a Leica Street photographer. I am, by my own admission a gear nut, but I don’t buy gear just to test it or pixel peep. I’m only interested in the art that can be produced with the gear. And seeing what emotions can be brought out in those who see my photos.